Centre for Automotive Energy Materials (CAEM)
Uniform carbon coating on electrode materials for lithium ion battereis is an effective method to increase the cyclic stability of lithium ion cells. By a novel in situ technique of solid state reaction of carbon precursor pillared metal hydroxides having uniform carbon coating on oxide electrodes such as LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2, LiMn2-xN1-xO4, LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2, NaNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2, Li2MnO3: LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2 has been achieved. A improved cyclic stability of the uniform carbon coated cathode materials compared to that of bare materials for lithium ion battereis is demonstrated
- Air ambient synthesis
- Insitu single step uniform carbon caoting
- Scalable manufacturing process
- Easily extendable to all oxide active material for Li/Na ion battereis
- Lithium ion battereis
- Sodium ion batteries
- Performance and stability are validated at laboratory scale
- Scale-up synthesis is underway
Major Patents / Publications
- A process for in-situ carbon coating on alkali transition metal oxide, M. B. Sahana, S. Vasu, M. Sathiya, and R. Gopalan, Patent Application No. 201611007461, Date of filing: March 03, 2016.
Ozone-friendly magnetic refrigerators – an alternative to conventional cooling technology for energy saving
Air conditioners and refrigeration make a major contribution to the global energy consumption. Conventional refrigerators work on energy-guzzling vapor-compression technique and they produce hydrofluorocarbons that are greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change when they escape into the atmosphere. Thus, there is a strong thrust to develop an energy-efficient technology. Magnetic refrigeration is an environmentally friendly technology that uses magnetic fields to change a magnetic material’s temperature (i.e. the magnetocaloric effect - MCE) and allows the solid material to serve as a refrigerant. This technology is energy efficient, eco-friendly and produces low vibration and noise. Thus, the need of the hour is to find suitable magnetocaloric materials that are cost-effective and exhibit large MCE spanning over a wide temperature range from low to room temperatures. Our research aims to develop magnetocaloric materials for active magnetic refrigeration applications.
- Developing advanced materials with magnetocaloric effect for energy efficient refrigeration.
- Rare-earth free, economic Ni-Mn based Heusler alloys, Mn- based alloys, exhibiting first-order transition are being explored for magnetic refrigeration
- A huge inverse magnetic entropy of 17 J/kg-K in Ni-Mn based Heusler alloys and 19 J/kg-K in Mn-Fe-P-Si alloy (normal magnetic entropy) are obtained near ambient temperature at 3 T magnetic field
- Household refrigerators
- Air-conditioning (Halls, automobiles etc.)
- Food preservation
- Synthesized single phase and prudent Ni-Mn based and Mn based magnetocaloric materials, which exhibits magnetocaloric effect at ambient temperatures.
- Upscaling of the magnetocaloric materials is underway
- Development of prototype to demonstrate magnetic refrigeration is under progress.
Major Patents / Publications
- S.Kavita, V.V.Ramakrishna, Poonam Yadav, Sravani Kethavath, N.P.Lalla, Tiju Thomas and R.Gopalan, J.Alloys and Comp., 795,519 (2019)
High voltage carbon encapsulated-graded LiMn2O4:LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 cathodes for rechargeable Li-ion pouch cells
Layered-structures such as LiNi1-x-yMnxCoyO2 and LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 are currently used as cathode materials in LIB for high-energy applications. However, practical achievable capacity of these materials are restricted to 150-200 mAh/g due to the limitation in the achievable charging voltage (4.2 V) with acceptable cyclic stability. If over-charge (above 4.2 V) induced surface degradation in LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 can be prevented, it is possible to achieve high reversible capacity up to 230 to 250 mAh/g. The minimization of surface induced degradation is observed in surface modified LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 (LNCA)
- Scalable synthesis method
- Higher specific capacity
- Lithium ion batteries
Funding Agency : DST
Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as potential alternative to Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for large scale energy storage applications, such as grid storage and EV applications due to their on par specific energy and low-cost. However, plenty of research efforts are required to find suitable electrode materials and electrolyte to achieve on par specific energy to that of LIBs. In this respect, different electrode materials are selected based on their promising electrochemical properties, such as transition metal layered oxides with high specific capacity and polyanionic compounds with long cycle life as cathodes; whereas hard carbon and sodium titanates with low sodium insertion potential and high specific capacity as anodes and electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and wide electrochemical stability window for sodium ion batteries. By novel synthesis approach, cathode and anode materials with high specific capacity and long cycle life has been demonstrated using in-house developed electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.
- High specific energy and power density, good rate capability, excellent cycle life, high thermal stability and safe-in operation.
- Low- cost and wider operating temperature range.
- Large scale electric energy storage (EES)
- Stationary energy storage
- Electric/hybrid electric vehicles
- Electrolytes with very high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability window has been prepared and tested.
- Electrode materials with excellent sodium storage performance has been developed, where cycle life >1000 cycles has been demonstrated in full cell configuration.
- Scale-up synthesis is being optimized.
Major Patents / Publications
- "Method for preparing electrode materials of alkali ion transition metal phosphates and the product there of" Bijoy Kumar Das, P. Laxman Mani Kanta, Lakshmi Priya N., R. Gopalan, G. Sunderarajan, Application Number: 201911008004, filed February 28, 2019.
- Bijoy Kumar Das, R. Gopalan (2019) 'Intercalation-based Layered Materials for Rechargeable Sodium-ion Batteries', Layered Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion. RSC Publisher.
Due to the depletion of the fossil energy reserves as well as alarming level of greenhouse gas emission triggered to look out for alternative clean energy sources, especially for automotive sector. The key challenge for electric vehicles is to get suitable battery to store the required amount of energy in a given volume for long driving range and speed. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been proven to be next generation technology to alleviate these problems. However, currently there are no manufacturers of these batteries in India. ARCI has undertaken a major task to developed LIB technology for electric vehicles by setting up a pilot plant facility for manufacturing of Lithium-ion cells and battery packs for automotive application. The objective is to establish the LIB technology using standard materials and demonstrate off-line/on-board vehicle testing. In addition high voltage/new materials will be developed indigenously. The promising materials will be optimized and scale-up for process technology.
- Prototype cells of 10 Ah have been fabricated and they exhibited a capacity retention of >80% after 1000 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of about 99%.
- Prototype modules of 12V, 10 Ah (120 Wh), 24V, 10 Ah (240 Wh) and 48V, 10 Ah (480 Wh) have been assembled and their performance evaluation have been carried out with appropriate loads.
- 15 Ah SS-LIB cells have been fabricated and successfully optimized the formation cycles. 48V, 15Ah (720 Wh) battery pack was assembled and its performance test with e-cycles under off-line/on-line conditions has been carried out.
- 18 Ah SS-LIB cells have been fabricated and successfully optimized the formation cycles. 48V, 18Ah (850 Wh) battery pack was assembled and its performance test with e-scooter under off-line/on-line conditions has been carried out.
- Scaled up LiFePO4 by FSP process and scale-up of carbon coating technology up to 1.5 kg
- Lithium titanate was successfully synthesized and up-scaled by cost-effective high energy milling method and showed promising electrochemical performance in terms of capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability in comparison with commercial LTO.
- Fabrication of 30 m length LTO electrode using indigenous LTO materials by Li-ion pilot plant unit
- Carbon coated SnO2-nanomaterials developed by DAP method yielded a better capacity and cyclic stability compared to that of conventional SnO2.
- Two, three and four wheeler electric vehicles
- Stationary energy storage applications
- Prototype cells have been fabricated and electrochemical performance has been tested
- Assembly and testing of large format battery module/pack carried out with e-cycle and e-scooter under on-road conditions.
Major Patents / Publications
- S. Vasu, Moodakare B. Sahana, Chandran Sudakar, R. Gopalan, G. Sundararajan, "In-situ carbon encapsulation of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 using pillared ethylene glycol trapped in the metal hydroxide interlayers for enhanced cyclic stability," Electrochimica Acta 251, 363-377.
- V. Rao Rikka, S. R, Sahu, R. Tadepalli, R. Bathe, T. Mohan, R. Prakash, G. Padmanabham and R. Gopalan, "Microstructure and mechanical properties of pulse laser welded SS and Al Alloys for lithium-Ion cell casings", Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 6, 2016, 218-225.
- R. Vallabha Rao, S.R. Sahu, P.V. Satyam, R. Prakash, M.S. Ramachandra Rao , R. Gopalan and G. Sundararajan, "In Situ/ex Situ Investigations on the Formation of the Mosaic Solid Electrolyte Interface Layer on Graphite Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries", Journal of Physical Chemistry C Vol.122 (50), p 28717-28726 , 2018
- S.R. Sahu, V.R. Rikka, M. Jagannatham, P. Haridoss, A. Chatterjee, R. Gopalan and R. Prakash, "Synthesis of Graphene Sheets from Single Walled Carbon Nanohorns: Novel Conversion from Cone to Sheet Morphology", Materials Research Express, Vol. 4(3), Article No. 035008, 2017.
- S. Bhuvaneswari, U.V.Varadaraju, R.Gopalan and RajuPrakash, "Structural stability and superior electrochemical performance of Sc-doped LiMn2O4 spinel as cathode for lithium ion batteries", Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 301, p 342-351, 2019.
- Sasikala Natarajan, Sahana B. Moodakare, Vasu Shanmugam, Prathap Haridoss, and Raghavan Gopalan, "Infrared Spectroscopic signatures of Aluminium segregation and Partial Oxygen substitution by Sulphur in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2", ACS Appl. Energy Materials, Vol. 1(6), p 2536-2545, 2018.
- V. V. N. Phanikumar, Vallabha Rao Rikka, Bijoy Das, Raghavan Gopalan, B. V. Appa Rao and Raju Prakash, "Investigation on polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate as aqueous binders for lithium-titanium oxide anode in lithium-ion batteries, Ionics, 2019, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 2549–2561.
- S. R. Sahu, D. Parimala Devi, V. V. N. Phanikumar, T. Ramesh, N. Rajalakshmi, G. Praveena, R. Prakash, B. Das, R. Gopalan, "Tamarind seed skin derived fibre-like carbon nanostructures as novel anode material for lithium-ion battery", Ionics , volume 24, Issue 11, pp 3413–3421.
Soft magnetic steel forms an essential component in all motors and alternators used in the automotive industry. Currently for high efficient motors Si steel (typical Si content ~2%) is being used. The ever increasing demand to phase out fossil fuel automotives and move to electric driven vehicles requires high performance motors. Hence there is a focus on alternate soft magnetic material which is cost effective and with better magnetic properties compared to Si steel. In this background we propose Fe-P as a potential alternate which is cost effective and with magnetic properties equivalent/better than Si steel. Fe-P based alloy prepared by wrought metallurgy process of induction melting, forging, hot rolling and subjected to a suitable two step heat treatment process yield soft magnetic materials with properties equivalent or better than Si steel. The formation of fine nano-precipitates of Fe3P enhances the resistivity of the alloy lowering the core loss at high frequency. Currently we have developed alloys with coercivity less than 1 Oe and a core loss of 187 W/kg at 1 kHz measured at Bmax 1 T
- Industrially viable wrought metallurgy process
- Alloy produced from low cost raw materials (cost effectiveness)
- Better mechanical properties advantages of machinability
- Good magnetic properties equivalent/better than commercial materials
- Used in alternators of automobiles
- Used in manufacture of various motors used in automobiles
- Explored for applications involving magnetic switching in valves and switch gears.
- Magnetic properties measured and benchmarked with standard commercial materials
- Prototypes produced and being benchmarked with commercially used machines
Major Patents / Publications
- Effect of Si addition on AC and DC magnetic properties of (Fe-P)-Si alloy, AIP Advances 6, 055921 (2016)
- AC magnetic properties and core loss behaviour of FeP soft magnetic sheets, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 50 (2014) 2008604
- High saturation magnetization in Fe-0.4 wt.% P alloy processed by a two-step heat treatment Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 345 (2013) 239.
Unused waste heat is generated at all places like generators, automobile exhaust, and all industrial processes. One way of scavenging this waste heat into electric energy without any pollution is through thermoelectric (TE) technology, which is based on the conversion of waste heat into electric energy. Automotive waste heat recovery is the center of attraction for research as the world is currently facing numerous problems due to the increasing demand in energy for sustainable transportion. It is calculated that 33% of total fuel energy in automobiles is wasted as exhaust gas. Hence TE technology can play a vital role in automobiles by converting the waste heat into electricity. The solid-state devices based on the TE technology are known as thermoelectric generator (TEG). TEGs have no moving parts and have good reliability.
- Materials technology to fabricate P and N type bulk solids with ZT more than 1.5 and chemically and structurally stable up to 500°C, typical automobile exhaust temperature.
- Fabrications know how for making thermoelectric modules from the high ZT materials. Legs fabrication, Interconnects, bonding between leg and interconnects and packaging.
- Demonstration of TE module technology with more than 8 % efficiency to automobile manufacturer.
- Exhaust heat recovery in automobiles
- Heavy indutries: power generation from the waste heat
- Achievent of figure of merit ~ 1.3 in skutterudite thermoelectric materials.
- Both n-type and p-type skutterudite thermoelectric material have been successfully fabricated.
- Scale-up and prototype module fabrication using skutterduite and PbTe systems are underway
Major Patents / Publications
- Priyadarshini Balasubramanian, Manjusha Battabyal, Duraiswamy Sivaprahasam, Raghavan Gopalan, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 50 (2017) 015602.
- S Harish, D Sivaprahasam, M Battabyal, R Gopalan, J. Alloys. Comp., 667 (2016) 323.
- M Battabyal, B Priyadarshini, L Pradipkanti, DK Satapathy, R Gopalan, AIP Advances, 6(2016)75308.